Top and Reliable Git 2.14.2 Hosting

Top and Reliable Git 2.14.2 Hosting

Top and Reliable Git 2.14.2 Hosting

What is Git?

Git is a free and open source distributed version control system designed to handle everything from small to very large projects with speed and efficiency. Git is easy to learn and has a tiny footprint with lightning fast performance. It outclasses SCM tools like Subversion, CVS, Perforce, and ClearCase with features like cheap local branching, convenient staging areas, and multiple workflows.

What’s New on Git 2.14.2?

Git v2.14.2 Release Notes

Fixes since v2.14.1

 * Because recent Git for Windows do come with a real msgfmt, the
   build procedure for git-gui has been updated to use it instead of a
   hand-rolled substitute.

 * "%C(color name)" in the pretty print format always produced ANSI
   color escape codes, which was an early design mistake.  They now
   honor the configuration (e.g. "color.ui = never") and also tty-ness
   of the output medium.

 * The http.{sslkey,sslCert} configuration variables are to be
   interpreted as a pathname that honors "~[username]/" prefix, but
   weren't, which has been fixed.

 * Numerous bugs in walking of reflogs via "log -g" and friends have
   been fixed.

 * "git commit" when seeing an totally empty message said "you did not
   edit the message", which is clearly wrong.  The message has been

 * When a directory is not readable, "gitweb" fails to build the
   project list.  Work this around by skipping such a directory.

 * A recently added test for the "credential-cache" helper revealed
   that EOF detection done around the time the connection to the cache
   daemon is torn down were flaky.  This was fixed by reacting to
   ECONNRESET and behaving as if we got an EOF.

 * Some versions of GnuPG fail to kill gpg-agent it auto-spawned
   and such a left-over agent can interfere with a test.  Work it
   around by attempting to kill one before starting a new test.

 * "git log --tag=no-such-tag" showed log starting from HEAD, which
   has been fixed---it now shows nothing.

 * The "tag.pager" configuration variable was useless for those who
   actually create tag objects, as it interfered with the use of an
   editor.  A new mechanism has been introduced for commands to enable
   pager depending on what operation is being carried out to fix this,
   and then "git tag -l" is made to run pager by default.

 * "git push --recurse-submodules $there HEAD:$target" was not
   propagated down to the submodules, but now it is.

 * Commands like "git rebase" accepted the --rerere-autoupdate option
   from the command line, but did not always use it.  This has been

 * "git clone --recurse-submodules --quiet" did not pass the quiet
   option down to submodules.

 * "git am -s" has been taught that some input may end with a trailer
   block that is not Signed-off-by: and it should refrain from adding
   an extra blank line before adding a new sign-off in such a case.

 * "git svn" used with "--localtime" option did not compute the tz
   offset for the timestamp in question and instead always used the
   current time, which has been corrected.

 * Memory leaks in a few error codepaths have been plugged.

 * bash 4.4 or newer gave a warning on NUL byte in command
   substitution done in "git stash"; this has been squelched.

 * "git grep -L" and "git grep --quiet -L" reported different exit
   codes; this has been corrected.

 * When handshake with a subprocess filter notices that the process
   asked for an unknown capability, Git did not report what program
   the offending subprocess was running.  This has been corrected.

 * "git apply" that is used as a better "patch -p1" failed to apply a
   taken from a file with CRLF line endings to a file with CRLF line
   endings.  The root cause was because it misused convert_to_git()
   that tried to do "safe-crlf" processing by looking at the index
   entry at the same path, which is a nonsense---in that mode, "apply"
   is not working on the data in (or derived from) the index at all.
   This has been fixed.

 * Killing "git merge --edit" before the editor returns control left
   the repository in a state with MERGE_MSG but without MERGE_HEAD,
   which incorrectly tells the subsequent "git commit" that there was
   a squash merge in progress.  This has been fixed.

 * "git archive" did not work well with pathspecs and the
   export-ignore attribute.

 * "git cvsserver" no longer is invoked by "git daemon" by default,
   as it is old and largely unmaintained.

 * Various Perl scripts did not use safe_pipe_capture() instead of
   backticks, leaving them susceptible to end-user input.  They have
   been corrected.

Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.

Credits go to joernchen <[email protected]> for finding the
unsafe constructs in "git cvsserver", and to Jeff King at GitHub for
finding and fixing instances of the same issue in other scripts.

Branching and Merging

The Git feature that really makes it stand apart from nearly every other SCM out there is its branching model.

Git allows and encourages you to have multiple local branches that can be entirely independent of each other. The creation, merging, and deletion of those lines of development takes seconds.

This means that you can do things like:

  • Frictionless Context Switching. Create a branch to try out an idea, commit a few times, switch back to where you branched from, apply a patch, switch back to where you are experimenting, and merge it in.
  • Role-Based Codelines. Have a branch that always contains only what goes to production, another that you merge work into for testing, and several smaller ones for day to day work.
  • Feature Based Workflow. Create new branches for each new feature you’re working on so you can seamlessly switch back and forth between them, then delete each branch when that feature gets merged into your main line.
  • Disposable Experimentation. Create a branch to experiment in, realize it’s not going to work, and just delete it – abandoning the work—with nobody else ever seeing it (even if you’ve pushed other branches in the meantime).

Small and Fast

Git is fast. With Git, nearly all operations are performed locally, giving it a huge speed advantage on centralized systems that constantly have to communicate with a server somewhere.

Git was built to work on the Linux kernel, meaning that it has had to effectively handle large repositories from day one. Git is written in C, reducing the overhead of runtimes associated with higher-level languages. Speed and performance has been a primary design goal of the Git from the start.


Let’s see how common operations stack up against Subversion, a common centralized version control system that is similar to CVS or Perforce. Smaller is faster.


One of the nicest features of any Distributed SCM, Git included, is that it’s distributed. This means that instead of doing a “checkout” of the current tip of the source code, you do a “clone” of the entire repository.

Multiple Backups

This means that even if you’re using a centralized workflow, every user essentially has a full backup of the main server. Each of these copies could be pushed up to replace the main server in the event of a crash or corruption. In effect, there is no single point of failure with Git unless there is only a single copy of the repository.

Any Workflow

Because of Git’s distributed nature and superb branching system, an almost endless number of workflows can be implemented with relative ease.

Subversion-Style Workflow

A centralized workflow is very common, especially from people transitioning from a centralized system. Git will not allow you to push if someone has pushed since the last time you fetched, so a centralized model where all developers push to the same server works just fine.

Data Assurance

The data model that Git uses ensures the cryptographic integrity of every bit of your project. Every file and commit is checksummed and retrieved by its checksum when checked back out. It’s impossible to get anything out of Git other than the exact bits you put in.

Staging Area

Unlike the other systems, Git has something called the “staging area” or “index”. This is an intermediate area where commits can be formatted and reviewed before completing the commit.

One thing that sets Git apart from other tools is that it’s possible to quickly stage some of your files and commit them without committing all of the other modified files in your working directory or having to list them on the command line during the commit.

Free and Open Source

Git is released under the GNU General Public License version 2.0, which is an open source license. The Git project chose to use GPLv2 to guarantee your freedom to share and change free software—to make sure the software is free for all its users.

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